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Monitoring Systems hosted on UNIX


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Developed on Debian/Ubuntu systems but does support the RHEL/CentOS system.


  • Apache
  • fping
  • MySQL
  • Net-SNMP 5.4+
  • RRDtool 1.3+
  • Graphviz
  • PHP 5.3+
Requirements for optional features:

  • Ipmitool - Only if you want to poll IPMI baseboard controllers on servers
  • Libvirt-bin - Only if you want to monitor remote VM hosts using libvirt


Focused on Ubuntu system


  • Apache 2
  • PHP
  • GCC compiler and development libraries
  • GD development libraries











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  • 2 weeks later...

Command Line Tools to check out system performance



The top command used to dipslay all the running and active real-time processes in ordered list and updates it regularly. It display CPU usage, Memory usage, Swap Memory, Cache Size, Buffer Size, Process PID, User, Commands and much more. It also shows high memory and cpu utilization of a running processess.


sort = type Shift+O to list sort options

launch top -u username to show information pertaining to certain user

press z to highlight running processes

press c to show absolute path of running processes

press d to change the default refresh interval from 3.0 seconds

press k to kill a process

press Shift+P to sort processes by CPU utilization

press r to change the priority of the processes (renice)

press Shift+W to save the top running processes to /root/.toprc

press h for top help

when running top it will continue to run until you press q to quit. You have the option to exit after so many refreshes by running top with how many refreshes like this: top -n 10 (this will quit after 10 refreshes)


VmStat command used to display statistics of virtual memory, kernerl threads, disks, system processes, I/O blocks, interrupts, CPU activity and much more. By default vmstat command is not available under Linux systems you need to install a package called sysstat that includes a vmstat program. Note: If you run vmstat without parameters it’ll displays summary report since system boot.


Free – Amount of free/idle memory spaces.

si – Swaped in every second from disk in Kilo Bytes.

so – Swaped out every second to disk in Kilo Bytes.

type vmstat 2 6 to execute every two seconds and stop automatically after executing 6 intervals

type vmstat -t 2 6 so adding the -t includes timestamps

type vmstat -s gives you a summary of various statistics

type vmstat -d gives you all disk statistics

type vmstat -S M 2 6 will display statistics in Megabytes (default it displays in kilobytes)


iostat without arguments displays CPU and I/O statistics of all partitions.


iostat -c shows only CPU statistics

iostat -d shows only disks i/o statistics of all partitions


iostat -p sda shows statistics for a certain disk


iostat -N shows only LVM statistics

iostat -V shows the version of iostat


lsof (list open files) is used when you can't unmount a drive. The open files included are disk files, network sockets, pipes, devices and processes.


FD – stands for File descriptor and may seen some of the values as:

cwd current working directory

rtd root directory

txt program text (code and data)

mem memory-mapped file

Also in FD column numbers like 1u is actual file descriptor and followed by u,r,w of it’s mode as:

r for read access.

w for write access.

u for read and write access.

TYPE – of files and it’s identification.

DIR – Directory

REG – Regular file

CHR – Character special file.

FIFO – First In First Out

lsof -i displays all listening and established processes/network connections

lsof -u username displays for certain user only

lsof -i -u username displays what a user is running

lsof -i -u^username displays processes for not this user (basically exclude certain user)

lsof -i TCP:22 displays all running processes for a certain port

lsof -i TCP:1-1024 displays all running processes for a range of certain ports

lsof -i 4 (shows IPv4 only)

lsof -i 6 (shows IPv6 only)

lsof -p 1 will display all process with PID of 1 (so display processes for a certain PID number)

kill -9 `lsof -t -u dennis` will kill all the processes for user dennis




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